Emperor Menelik II (1889-1913)
Subsequent to Emperor Yohannes's death in March 1889, Prince Menelik of Shewa Menelik was crowned Emperor of Ethiopia and he established Entoto as his Capital, on the hill of Addis Ababa. Menelik expanded his rule to the south and east of the country but he faced a threat from the Italians who still occupied Massawa, Saati and the Red Sea Coast. Menelik was helpless to defend the country from the Italian occupation and he attempted to negotiate with Italians. The Treaty of Wechale was signed effectively Menelik has granted Eritrea to Italy in exchange recognition of Ethiopian sovereignty. What Menelik did not know was the Italians inserted a clause in the Italian version of the Treat of Wechale, restricting Ethiopia from foreign contact stating all contacts must be made through Italy. Menelik's nightmare did not end there, the Italians attempted to court the Tigrayans Princes into the alliance with Eritrea and the Italians invaded north part of Tigray leading to the Battle of Adwa.
The Ethiopian army equipped with spears, machetes and a few rifles marched on Adwa to defend their country from the foreign invader Italy. In March 1896, the Ethiopians defeated the Italian army, which was one of the proudest moments in the Ethiopian history. The Italians defeat at the Battle of Adwa was not enough for the Ethiopian army who wanted to drive the Italians out of Eritrea for good. Nevertheless, Menelik returned to Addis Ababa leaving Eritrea under Italian occupation. Menelik is believed to have said, "leave the Italians to rule Eritrea beyond Merab River". This dismayed many Ethiopians who prepared to die and defend their country's sovereignty against Italian occupation.
After his return to Addis Ababa, Menelik negotiated with Italy to define a common border between Ethiopia and Eritrea. He signed an agreement recognising Eritrea as a sovereign state of Italy, beyond the Merab River as main border between Ethiopia and Eritrea. Ethiopia remained an independent and sovereign state, though Menelik lost Eritrea to Italy, during the "Scramble of Africa".
Menelik then moved his Capital from Entoto to Addis Ababa, which is now the Capital of Ethiopia. Menelik began to build schools and hospital in Addis Ababa and introduced electricity and telephone. He continued his modernisation programme by building a railway, with the help of the French, linking Addis Ababa to Djibouti through Dera Awa, main trade centre of Harar.
In 1913, Menelik died from ill health. Iyasu was the successor and designated heir of Menelik II.
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- Binyam Kebede (2002). http://www.ethiopiafirst.com (4ladies.jpg, Afar-lady.jpg, Afar-girl.jpg, lady-artful-lips.jpg, Man-face-art.jpg, Man-face-art2.jpg, Somal-lady.jpg, Debra-Damo.jpg, Buitiful-girls.jpg, lady-face-art.jpg, man-hair-style.jpg, yeha.jpg, harar.jpg,). Many thanks to Binyam Kebede for his permission to copy and use these pictures from his website.
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- Mr. Solomon Kibriye (2003). Imperial Ethiopia Homepage, http://www.angelfire.com/ny/ethiocrown. Many thanks to Mr. Solomon Kibriye for the contribution and comments he has made to this website.
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